Parallel Sessions 3.1 to 3.6
Maria Hvid Stenalt (State and University Library, Denmark): Online access to advertising films and TV commercials
This presentation intends to describe how the Danish’ State Media Archive’s collection of Danish advertising films was made available online to students and researchers. The presentation will describe why the collection of audiovisual material is of such importance, how the project overcame copyright issues and the overall technical solution for making the collection available on the State and University Library’s website. Finally the article will describe future equivalent projects of Danish media collections that will be made available online.
The State Media Archive at the State and University Library in Denmark holds among others the Danish collection of advertising films. The collection consists of almost every advertising film shown in Danish cinemas from the 1950’ies to 1995 and every TV commercial aired on the Danish television channel TV2 since the station started broadcasting in October 1998 until 2006. This adds up to approximately 28,000 advertising films. The material is of cultural and historical importance as it is a testimonial of the current gender issues, cultural norms, and among others illustrates the aesthetic and technological development at the time. For researchers and university students the archive is a valuable source for research and education.
With support from the Research Council for Culture and Communication and the Ministry of Culture a project was funded to digitize the collection, resolve copyright issues and solve the infrastructure. The project was initiated in 2007 together with the Department of Information and Media Studies at Aarhus University. The main objective was to allow researchers and students to access the collection of advertising films via the internet. Locating the material on the internet accessible through the library’s online search function and database makes it easier and more effective for the group of users to view and browse the many different films, compare the comprehensive material and access the material just in time and when needed. One of the challenging tasks in the project was to enter into a new agreement with the collecting society handling copyright issues in Denmark (Copydan AV Copies) as it would be almost impossible to collect permission from everyone involved in the production of the advertising films.
Maria Hvid Stenalt is academic employee at The State and University Library in Denmark. She has a Master’s degree in IT, specialized in media, design and communication. Maria works in the areas of media communication and research, digital cultural heritage, education and educational technology. She has a keen interest in use of media in research and teaching in Higher Education and has published several articles on the subject. Prior to working at the library she was ICT-educational coordinator at the E-learning Unit at Aarhus University.
Marianne Alenius, Niels Stern (Museum Tusculanum Press, Denmark): Open Access monographs
The scholarly monograph is under increasing pressure these days. The crisis is clearly reflected throughout the research community and especially within the Humanities. This presentation will stipulate the crisis from the viewpoint of a scholarly press and suggest ways to keep monograph publishing a viable business for scholarly publishers. One of these ways could be open access publishing and therefore the presentation will look more closely at the ongoing EU-funded OAPEN project (Open Access Publishing in European Networks, www.oapen.org) which is devoted to open access monographs and of which the presenter is a consortium partner.
In the field of the Humanities (and the Social Sciences and Theology) the monograph is still the most preferred form of research dissemination among the scholars. However, the scholars are under great pressure due to the implementation of bibliometric systems that relatively measure journal articles above/higher than the traditional 500+ pages monograph. This puts pressure on the monograph as genre. But humanists often do basic research in completely new fields where material has to be described, explained and documented for the very first time. This cannot be done in an 8-pages article.
The small and medium sized (SME) scholarly publishers are under pressure as well since they mainly publish hardcopy monographs. The so-called serial crisis has seriously affected the publishers since the library acquisitions have dropped dramatically over the last 2-3 decades making it an increasingly unhealthy business for the scholarly publisher. Will this be the end of the scholarly monograph? Will it be the end of scholarly publishers? Or will we see new ways of monograph publishing emerge?
An increasingly - still relatively insignificant - number of scholarly publishers are experimenting with alternative ways of publishing monographs. Of these initiatives e-book publishing and open access publishing are the most significant.
Museum Tusculanum Press (MTP) at the University of Copenhagen has - as one of the first scholarly publishers in the Nordic Countries - experimented with both of these alternative publishing forms. Having published e-books since 2004 the main business conclusion today is that e-books don not generate sufficient revenue to be economically viable. This of course might change with the up-coming and possible consolidation of new e-book readers. So far e-books are mainly sold via aggregators which are not a financially viable sales channel for the publishers. And libraries tend still not to buy single e-books from the scholarly publishers.
Through participation in two international open access projects MTP has gained tremendous insight into open access publishing. As the only traditional scholarly publisher MTP was partner in the Nordic project on scientific journals and open access (NOAP led by Lund University Library from 2007-2009 www.ub.uit.no/wiki/noap) and now as a consortium partner of the OAPEN project. OAPEN is the first project where scholarly publishers across Europe work together in an attempt to evolve new ways of monograph publishing in open access and to find new business models for this. OAPEN is also creating a network of stakeholders (libraries, universities, funders, scholars, and publishers) in scholarly publishing and performing serious research into the needs of the stakeholders - e.g. the just released User Needs Report (138 pp.) available at www.oapen.org. Part of the OAPEN mission is also to develop the technical platform that will hold the OAPEN Collection which will contain peer reviewed monographs, open access in their original language.
If efficient business models can be found, the OAPEN model might be among the sustainable solutions for the threatened monographs in Europe. Another already working model can be seen across the Atlantic where the University of California Press and the California Digital Library collaborate as service providers (UCPubS) for UC institutes and centres. Yet the American initiative does not have to handle 23 different (all official) EU languages! There are great challenges and opportunities ahead for the scholarly monograph and for the scholarly publishers. In the process of change the role of the research libraries is of great importance. Collaboration between libraries, universities and scholarly publishers is necessary.
Marianne Alenius graduated from Copenhagen University in 1978 as MA in Latin & BA in Greek. In 1989 she became a PhD in Scandinavian Studies and the same year library consultant at the Royal Library Future Programme and managing director at Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen. Board member of The Danish Publishers Association and member of the board of The Danish Copyright Centre (CopyDan). Former president of the Danish association of University Publishers. Together with Niels Stern she has been work group leader in the Nordic open access project NOAP - Aiding Scientific Journals towards Open Access Publishing (http://www.ub.uit.no/wiki/noap, 2007-09) headed by Lund University Libraries and supported by Nordbib (Nordic Council). She is currently a member of the Consortium Board of the European Open Access project for scholarly publishers in the Humanities and Social Sciences OAPEN (Open Access Publishing in European Networks - www.oapen.org, 2008-11) under the eContentplus (EU) programme.
Niels Stern has studied Political Science at the University of Aarhus and graduated as MA at the Department of Nordic Literature and Linguistics at the University of Copenhagen. In addition to this he graduated as MA from the Department of Communication at Goldsmiths College, University of London. He worked for several years as a media producer for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation before joining Museum Tusculanum Press in 2003 as an e-publishing project coordinator and later as Head of Marketing and e-Publishing. Together with Marianne Alenius he has been work group leader in the Nordic open access project NOAP - Aiding Scientific Journals towards Open Access Publishing (http://www.ub.uit.no/wiki/noap, 2007-09) headed by Lund University Libraries and supported by Nordbib (Nordic Council). He is currently a member of the Project Management Team of the European Open Access project for scholarly publishers in the Humanities and Social Sciences OAPEN (Open Access Publishing in European Networks - www.oapen.org, 2008-11) under the eContentplus (EU) programme.
Clemens Neudecker, Asaf Tzadok (Impact Project, The Netherlands): User collaboration for improving access to historical texts
The paper will address how web based collaboration tools can engage users in the building of historical printed text resources created by mass digitisation projects. The drivers for developing such tools, identifying the benefits that can be derived for both the user community and cultural heritage institutions, will be presented. The perceived risks, such as new errors introduced by the users, and the limitations of engaging with users in this way will be set out with the lessons that can be learnt from existing activities, such as the National Library of Australia’s newspaper website which supports collaborative correction of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) output.
The paper will present the work of the IMPACT (Improving Access to Text, http://www.impact-project.eu) project, a large-scale integrating project funded by the European Commission as part of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). One of the aims of the project is to develop tools that help improve OCR results for historical printed texts, specifically those works published before the industrial production of books from the middle of the 19th century.
The coordinator of the IMPACT project is the KB – National library of the Netherlands. The KB will work intensively in the coming years to realise a digital library that is accessible to everyone with an Internet connection. As national library the KB collects and maintains all publications that appear in the Netherlands, as well as a part of the international publications about the Netherlands. One of the large, labour-intensive challenges is to digitise all the books, periodicals and newspapers that have appeared in the Netherlands. The KB aims to have 10% of all Dutch books, newspapers and periodicals digitised in 2013 (60 million pages by the KB, 13 million by third parties), as well as to offer the full-text collections in such a way that they can be used immediately by researchers.
To realise this goal, technological improvements to image processing and OCR engine technology are key. However, engaging the user community also has an important role to play. Utilising the intended user can aid in achieving the levels of accuracy currently found in born digital materials. Improving OCR results to this level is key to producing resources that support better resource discovery and enabling greater performance when applying text mining and accessibility tools to the extracted text. The IMPACT project will specifically develop a tool that supports collaborative correction and validation of OCR results and a tool to allow user involvement in building historical dictionaries which can be used to validate word recognition. The technologies use the characteristics of human perception as a basis for error detection.
Clemens Neudecker holds a M.A. in Philosophy, Computer Science and Political Science. He has been a member of the Munich Digitisation Centre (MDZ) from 2003-2009 and has been mostly involved with OCR processing, authority files and databases. He has in depth knowledge of all steps of an in-house digitisation process, from capture approach to online publication, thanks to numerous responsibilities in almost 20 digitisation projects from 2003 onwards. He currently works as Interoperability Manager for IMPACT at the KB National library of the Netherlands.
Martin Moyle (University College London, UK): Crowdsourcing manuscript transcription
UCL Library Services holds 60,000 folios of manuscripts of the philosopher and jurist Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). A new project, the Bentham Papers Transcription Initiative (BPTI), is using this corpus to test the feasibility of outsourcing the work of manuscript transcription to members of the public.
The BPTI will initially digitise 10,000 folios, and create a suite of transcription training tools. A simple interface will be devised to allow registered contributors to take temporary ownership of manuscript images and to supply transcription text for final approval by UCL experts. If approved, the transcripts will be stored as TEI-encoded documents, alongside the manuscript images, in UCL's public Digital Collections repository. The repository will feed into an over-arching Bentham Project 'hub' site, which, in addition to housing the transcription interface, will offer open access to the images, transcripts and a Bentham-based 'Ideas Bank'.
The BPTI project makes innovative use of traditional material. It will stimulate public engagement with UCL's scholarly archive collections and the challenges of manuscript transcription; it will raise the profile of the work and thought of Jeremy Bentham; and it will make new digital resources available to professional researchers. The project is funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council, led by the UCL Bentham Project, in collaboration with UCL Library Services and UCL Department of Information Studies. It is part of the work of the new UCL Centre for Digital Humanities.
Martin Moyle is Digital Curation Manager at UCL (University College London), with responsibilities for services and projects in the areas of digital repositories and digital preservation. Current projects include text mining for open access repositories (the JISC MERLIN project), metadata aggregation (the EuropeanaTravel project), a repository of primary audio-visual research data (the JISC CAVA project) and crowdsourced manuscript transcription (the AHRC Bentham Transcription Initiative).
Wouter Schallier (LIBER, The Netherlands), Sally Chambers (The European Library, The Netherlands): Bringing research libraries into Europeana: establishing a library-domain aggregator
The mission of Europeana is to enable people to explore the digital resources of Europe’s museums, libraries, archives and audio-visual collections. By Summer 2010, Europeana will be launched as an operational service, which aims to give access to 10 million items of Europe’s cultural and scientific heritage through Europeana.eu. Europe’s national, research and public libraries have a significant role to play in the realisation of the Europeana vision.
As outlined in Europeana’s content strategy, there are thousands of cultural and scientific institutions in Europe with content and collections that are of interest for Europeana. However, it is not sustainable for Europeana to work with all of these institutions directly. A content aggregation model is therefore of crucial importance in enabling Europeana to reach its objectives.
Europeana’s future strategy requires a domain-level aggregator of library content, positioned alongside other domain aggregators for museums, archives and audio-visual collections. To enable this, LIBER (Association of European Research Libraries), CENL (Conference of European National Librarians) and CERL (Consortium of European Research Libraries) have joined forces to submit the “Europeana Libraries” project proposal to the European Commission in the context of the CIP-ICT PSP-2010-4 "Digital Libraries" programme in early Summer 2010. This paper outlines the vision of the “Europeana Libraries” project, which will turn The European Library into a domain-level aggregator of library content into Europeana.
The “Europeana Libraries” project will aggregate high quality content primarily from research libraries in countries such as Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain and Switzerland. that are currently under-represented or even absent in Europeana. The content selected will be existing digital cultural content of interest to a broad public. The outcome of this project, if accepted, will be that both content and metadata will be retrievable and accessible for the first time through Europeana.
Aggregation of content will happen through The European Library. Launched as an operational service in March 2005, The European Library currently aggregates the digital and bibliographic collections from the 48 national libraries of Europe. If accepted, the “Europeana Libraries” project will enable The European Library to scale its aggregation infrastructure up to become the domain-level aggregator of library content into Europeana.
Within the project, work will be undertaken in the areas of content ingestion, aggregation and the development of sustainable business and organisation models. The aim of the content ingestion work package will be to ingest the existing high-quality digital content as efficiently as possible into Europeana in compliance with the relevant Europeana content standards. Only content free from IPR issues will be taken into consideration in order to guarantee wide dissemination and use of the content. The aggregation work package will turn The European Library into a domain-level aggregator of library content into Europeana. This will be made possible by scaling up the existing infrastructure to manage the large-scale aggregation and ingestion of content and improving interoperability by creating a single workflow for the ingestion of content from libraries into The European Library and Europeana. To ensure that the library-domain aggregator for Europeana can operate in a sustainable and cost effective way beyond the life-time of project, sustainable business and organisational models will be developed.
Sally Chambers is Collections Manager for The European Library, based at the National Library of the Netherlands, where she has been working since 2005. Prior to joining The European Library, she worked as Electronic Library Projects Coordinator at the University of London Library, where she led several digital library projects including the Virtual Research Environment project, which developed and tested a web-based environment to support the needs of the e-researcher, the development of an online library for distance learning students and a project to develop a Library Research Skills Tutorial. Sally has been working in the library profession since 1994, primarily in academic libraries in the UK. Since 2000, she has focussed solely on digital libraries.
Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen (National Library of Finland, Finland): Libraries, archives and museums working together! Learning by doing! Making the collections and services of libraries, archives and museums digitally available
The Finnish Digital Library project aims at promoting the online availability and usability of the essential information resources of libraries, archives and museums and at developing long-term preservation solutions for digital cultural heritage materials. The project has been launched by the Ministry of Education for the period 2008−2011 (http://www.kdk2011.fi/fi/english-intro) and the total budget for 2008-2011 is ca M16EUR.
The National Library of Finland is responsible for the development of the National user interface during the period 2008-2011. The system will be operable in 2011. This paper has its focus on the development and implementation of the National user interface in collaboration with archives, libraries and museums, describing the major challenges and risks of the project and how these have been worked on.
The network of archives, museums and libraries in Finland consists of ca 500 -600 organisations. There are many expectations related to the functionality of the system within these organisations as well as among the end users. The organisations are also interested in the added value the Public interface will bring them.
The challenges of the project are diverse ranging from political to detailed technical issues and many of them are more political or legal in nature or related to human issues than technical. Some of the major challenges and risks which have been identified and worked on are:
- shared vision of the functionalities and benefits of the public interface
- added value gained through the system
- meeting the user needs
- adaption of rapidly changing technology
- funding and resourcing
- needed expertise
Many methods have been used in the collaboration between archives, libraries and museums. To mention a couple: sharing knowledge of the systems and services of libraries, archives and museums, project staff of national library visiting frequently memory organisations, taking advantage of social media for example in drafting the functional requirements of the system, communication plan covering the whole project.
A couple of slogans describe the philosophy and atmosphere of the project : Libraries, archives and museums working together! Learning by doing!
Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen is the deputy national librarian of the National Library of Finland and the director of Library Network Services department. The department is responsible for the coordination of national library infrastructure services for the Finnish libraries. The national infrastructure services include library system and national portal management and development, national licensing, development of library statistics and coordination of consortia activities.
Coordination of national infrastructure services for the libraries network is a new task for the library.
Hormia-Poutanen is a member of the LIBER board and chair of the LIBER Digitisation and Resource Discovery section since 2010. She is a member of the IFLA National libraries section. She is the chair of the availability section of the Finnish Digital Library project since 2008. She was member of University libraries’ structural development project during 2008-2009, the project group was nominated by the Ministry of Education. She is member of several steering groups related to the development of library services in Finland. She has been a member of the management board of National Library since 2000.
Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen is active in various national and international initiatives. To mention some of the international activities IFLA, ICOLC, LIBER, eIFL can be mentioned. Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen participates actively in international co-operation especially with questions related to digital library infrastructures, cross-domain cooperation, consortia development issues, licensing and licensing models, open access questions and development of easy access methods to electronic resources.